The human struggle against virus has begun long before our species is perfect until it has evolved into a modern form.
For some diseases caused by viruses, there are vaccines and antiviral drugs that are able to prevent widespread disease spread. In fact, smallpox has been successfully eradicated. However, the ebola outbreaks that occurred in West Africa show that our war against the virus is far from over.
The virus that triggered the epidemic, Ebola Zaire, killed up to 90 percent of the infected people and made it a difficult Ebola family destroyed.
Ebola is deadly, but actually out there are many other viruses that are even more dangerous. Consider Elke Muhlberger, ebola virus expert and professor of microbiology at Boston University.
Here are 9 dangerous viruses on earth based on the risk of someone dying if infected and the number of deaths and people threatened by this virus.
1. Marburg virus
Scientists identified the Marburg virus in 1967, when a small outbreak occurred among laboratory workers in Germany who made contact with imported monkeys from Uganda.
Marburg virus is similar to ebola which both can cause high fever and bleeding. This means an infected person will experience high fever and bleeding throughout the body that can cause shock, organ failure and death.
The death rate during the first outbreak was 25 percent, but the figure rose 80 percent in the 1998-2000 epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as in 2005 outbreaks in Angola, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
2. Ebola virus
The first human ebola outbreak occurred simultaneously in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976. Ebola is transmitted through contact with blood, body fluids, or tissues of an ebola-infected person or animal
One of the viruses, Ebola Reston, does not make anyone sick. But for the Bundibugyo virus, the mortality rate is up to 50 percent and up to 71 percent for the Sudanese virus, according to WHO.
Although the pet rabies vaccine introduced in 1920 has made this infection rare in developed countries, but rabies is still a serious problem in developing countries, including Indonesia.
“This virus is damaging the brain and it’s a bad disease, but we have an antirabies vaccine, and we have antibodies that work against rabies, so if someone gets bitten by a rabid animal we can heal this person,” he said. Even so, without treatment someone can die.
In a modern world, HIV is still one of the biggest killers. An estimated 36 million people have died from HIV since the disease was first recognized in the early 1980s. “The most contagious disease that affects humans today is HIV,” said Dr.Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease specialist.
Strong antiviral drugs have made it possible for people to live for years with HIV. But the disease is still a killer in low- and middle-income countries, where HIV infection accounts for 95 percent. Almost 1 out of every 20 adults in the Saharan African section are HIV-positive, according to WHO.
In 1980, the World Health Assembly declared the world free from smallpox. But before that, humans fought against smallpox for thousands of years and this disease killed about 1 in 3 people who were infected. Survivors who survive with survivors suffer permanent injuries and are usually blind.
6. Hanta Virus
Pulmonary Hantavirus Syndrome (HPS) received widespread attention in the United States in 1993, when an initially healthy young man Navajo and his fiancée lived in the Four Corners area of the United States, died within days of experiencing shortness of breath.
The virus is not transmitted from one person to another, but people contract the disease from exposure to infected mouse droppings. Previously, different hantaviruses caused an outbreak in the early 1950s, during the Korean War. More than 3,000 soldiers were infected and about 12 percent of them died.
According to WHO, during flu season around 500,000 people worldwide died from the disease. But sometimes, when a new flu virus appears there will be a pandemic and the number of deaths is even higher.
The most lethal flu pandemic, sometimes called the Spanish flu, began in 1918 and caused illness in 40 percent of the world’s population and killed about 50 million people. Experts are now worried about the emergence of new influenza viruses that can spread quickly between humans.
8. Dengue Fever
Dengue virus first appeared in 1950 in the Philippines and Thailand, and has since spread throughout the tropics and subtropics throughout the world. About 40 percent of the world’s population now live in areas where dengue is endemic, and the disease brought by mosquitoes is likely to spread further.
According to WHO, dengue suffered 50 to 100 million people per year. Although the dengue fever rate is lower than some other viruses, by 2.5 percent, it can cause shock, just like ebola patients.
There is no vaccine to prevent dengue, but a large clinical trial of experimental vaccine developed by French drug makers, Sanofi has promising results.
Two vaccines have been available to protect children from rotavirus, a major cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and children. The virus spreads fecal-orally, meaning that there are particles of feces that enter the food and are inedible.
Although children in developed countries rarely die from rotavirus infection, the disease is a killer in the developing world. WHO estimates that worldwide, 453,000 children under the age of 5 die from rotavirus infection in 2008.